what is ugobho used for
A. R. Ndhlala, J. F. Finnie, and J. Decoction prepared from it is also used to remove excess fluid from the body and to â¦  evaluated antibacterial activities of water and methanol extracts of dried roots of G. perpensa against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphyloccocus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Gunnera perpensa is widely known for its high medicinal importance in several traditional medicine systems in southern Africa which resulted in the creation of some formulas or prescriptions (Table 1). Future research should focus on the mechanisms of action of the isolated compounds, their efficacy, toxicity, and clinical relevance. In Swaziland, G. perpensa is a dominant medicinal plant harvested from wetlands, with traders generating R150–200 (US$20.49–27.32) monthly from selling the rhizomes or roots of the species . In Sub-Saharan Africa, G. perpensa is the most popular Gunnera species. The results revealed that all the extracts were nonmutagenic towards the Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 for the assay with and without S9 metabolic activation. A number of factors such as poverty, poor eating habit, and hormonal imbalance are responsible for the occurrence of the disease. B. Cunningham, “African medicinal plants: setting priorities at the interface between conservation and primary health care,”. They are natives of South America but also widely cultivated in temperate, tropical, and subtropical countries as ornamental and medicinal plant species [1, 6–11]. In addition to this, pyrogallol 14 was effective of all the scavenging and reducing power results . Imbola: EC, KZN: Bulb Used to improve sexuality, assist with thrush, bad odour that women experience today, which may cause your partner to avoid intiamcy with you. River pumpkin (ugobho) is one of the worldâs oldest plant species and it grows in most of South Africaâs provinces. At days 7 and 14, G. perpensa had egg count reduction percentage ranging from 71 to 100%, signifying that the species has remarkable anthelmintic properties and has long-acting effects on Heterakis gallinarum in the system of the chickens. All the leaves arise from a central tuft near the top of the apex, just above the soil level. From day 0 to 14, haematocrit was reduced for chickens orally administered with G. perpensa 50, 100, and 400 mg/kg doses and haemoglobin was out of the range on day 0 and improved to be within the range on days 7 and 14. Gunnera perpensa is an important ingredient of at least three traditional concoctions in South Africa, known as “imbiza ephuzwato,” “inembe,” and “isihlambezo” (Table 1). The low impact use of peeled twigs as chewing sticks accounted for the other 12 % of sticks used and â¦ The nontoxic nature of aqueous G. perpensa extracts has also been demonstrated at a cellular level using human fibroblast and monkey vero cell lines by Brookes and Smith . McGaw et al. Van Oudtshoorn, and N. Gericke. The low impact use of peeled twigs as chewing sticks accounted for the other 12 % of sticks used and for the remaining 20 species (Ake Assi, 1988b). In an earlier study, McGaw et al. Gunnera perpensa extract stimulated direct contractile response on isolated uterine smooth muscle and induced a state of continuous contractility of the uterus once all physiological buffer had been removed from the organ bath. Ugobho Plant scientifically called Gunnera perpensa known to healing broken bones Ithala Is the upper place in a traditional house where preservation of meat occurs. Using baking soda to help you get pregnant works by addressing the pH level and making it more conducive to the survival of sperm. Generally, bush medicine used by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia is made from plant materials, such as bark, leaves and seeds, although animal products may be used as well.  investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous rhizome extracts of Gunnera perpensa using Cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) inhibitory bioassays. Muleya et al. Decoctions are also taken orally to relieve dysuria, rheumatic pains and dyspepsia, as a stomachic, or for colds. Chemical structures of compounds isolated from, From Traditional Usage to Pharmacological Evidence: Systematic Review of, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/categories-and-criteria/2001-categories-criteria, Urinary complaints and pain in rheumatic fever, Administered to facilitate expulsion of the afterbirth, Induce or augment labour, postnatal medication to expel afterbirth, abortifacient, administered to animals to expel placenta and treatment of endometritis, A detoxifying and energizing tonic used to increase sexual prowess and relieve constipation, stress, high blood pressure, arthritis, kidney problems, and general body pains, Used to induce or augment labour and as postnatal medication to expel the afterbirth, administered to animals to expel the placenta and treatment of endometritis, Used to treat haemorrhoids, pregnancy-related complications, painful breasts during menstruation, and management of several inflammatory disorders, Leaves, rhizome decoction or infusion taken orally, Expel placenta after birth in humans and animals, Leaves edible as leafy vegetables. Diabetes mellitus (DM) belongs to the group of five leading important diseases causing death globally and remains a major health problem in Africa. Furthermore, research by Williams  revealed that large volumes of this species are traded in medicinal (muthi) markets in South Africa and local extirpations have been noted particularly in the Eastern Cape  and KwaZulu Natal provinces [26, 48]. Gunnera perpensa has a lot of potential as a possible source of pharmaceutical products for the treatment of a wide range of both human and animal diseases and ailments. Ukuphalaza yinto ekade yaqala ukwenziwa futhi angiboni ukuthi iyophela. To continue using baking soda to help you get pregnant, suck the liquid with a sterilized syringe. Isihlambezo is a herbal decoction used by many pregnant women in South Africa as a pregnancy tonic to hasten childbirth and expel placenta.  revealed that G. perpensa and M. flabellifolia have similar geographical distribution. Leaves , there is a close relationship between genus Gunnera and Myrothamnus flabellifolia Welw., a morphologically different taxon confined to dry habitats belonging to the monogeneric family Myrothamnaceae. Indlebeyemvu: Leaves: Tea from dried leaves applied to circumcision wounds H. aureonitens Sch.Bip. Infusion made from fresh or dried parts Asteraceae Artemisia afra Jacq. Itâs understandable that a pregnant mom would consider... more... 0 Comment (s) Oct 01, 2020. D. Raimondo, L. von Staden, W. Foden et al.. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), J. E. Victor and M. Keith, “The orange list: a safety net for biodiversity in South Africa,”, L. von Staden, D. Raimondo, and W. Foden, “Approach to red list assessments,” in, L. Seleteng Kose, A. Moteetee, and S. Van Vuuren, “Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the Maseru district of Lesotho,”, M. B. C. Simelane, O. Like most medicinal plants in southern Africa, G. perpensa is collected from the wild. A. Lawal, T. G. Djarova, and A. R. Opoku, “, F. Mtunzi, E. Muleya, J. Modise, A. Sipamla, and E. Dikio, “Heavy metals content of some medicinal plants from Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa,”.  evaluated the toxicity of G. perpensa rhizome methanol extract using the brine shrimp lethality test. The phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of G. perpensa rhizomes carried out by Simelane et al. The compound pyrogallol 14 inhibited 78.0% lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 30 μg/mL concentration; and BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol, and trolox exhibited inhibitions of at least 83.8% against peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration . New study looks at links between severity of Covid-19 and antibodies, Heart failure risk significantly increased by chips and fizzy drinks, Global trial finds life-saving drug for older people suffering from acute myeloid leukaemia, Booze ban not all bad – alcohol does your immune system no favours, Back to stalemate between SAA pilots and rescue practitioners, New lockdown regulations a chicken or egg dilemma for SA tourism industry, Losses and gains of 2020: 21 authors reflect, Karyn Maughan | Zondo 'bent over backwards' for Zuma - and it's coming back to haunt him, Jabulani Sikhakhane | Framework for civil service reforms thin on depoliticisation details. Some of the chemical compounds isolated from G. perpensa have demonstrated various biological activities when investigated in in vitro assays. The reported compounds were identified and characterized by various criteria including UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectroscopy. Helichrysum appendiculatum Indlebeyemvu Leaves Tea from dried leaves applied to circumcision wounds (L.f.) Less. 2003). Buwa and Van Staden  evaluated the antifungal activity of aqueous, ethanolic, and ethyl acetate root extracts of G. perpensa against Candida albicans. The high COX-2 inhibitory activity of G. perpensa makes the species a better product when treating because the COX-2 enzyme is specific in treating inflamed tissue, resulting in less gastric irritation as compared to COX-1 inhibitors and hence decreased risk of gastric ulceration . Its roots are 30 cm thick, fleshy, dark brown or blackish on the outside but yellow or pinkish-red inside [1, 45]. According to Dold and Cocks , G. perpensa is heavily traded in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa, characterized by a high price on the medicinal (muthi) market with 1 kg fetching R47.80 (US$4.54) with 115.6 kilogrammes as mean quantity traded per trader per annum.  investigated the antifungal activity of aqueous, petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and 80% ethanol rhizome extracts of G. perpensa against Candida albicans using the microdilution assay. Biological and pharmacological studies of various extracts and isolated compounds from G. perpensa confirmed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme inhibition, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, lactogenic, and uterotonic activities.  evaluated the effect of aqueous G. perpensa extract, ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate-methanol extract, and pure Z-venusol 5 on rat uterine and ileal muscles. There will be female flowers at the base, male flowers at the top, and bisexual flowers in the middle of each spike [1, 45]. Ethanol and water extracts of G. perpensa were active with MIC values of 3.13 and 0.78 mg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Ozturk Sarikaya  evaluated the compound pyrogallol 14 as a potential inhibitor for AChE enzyme and the results showed that the compound exhibited potent AChE enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 and inhibitory constant (Ki) values 10.2 and 8.6 μM, respectively. Email Based on these results, McGaw et al. However, it is not a replacement for the advice of a doctor. Khan et al. The fluorescein isothiocyanate Annexin V and the lactate dehydrogenase activity assays suggested that Z-venusol 5 induced apoptotic cell death in the breast cancer cells. McGaw et al. Gunnera perpensa can therefore be used for treating inflammation related conditions including abdominal pain, swelling of the body, menstrual pains, kidney inflammation and problems, sores, general body pain, and wounds (see Tables 1 and 2). Many of these formulas or prescriptions are in clinical use, usually prepared as decoctions or infusions, and sold in informal markets, medicinal herbal (muthi) markets, supermarkets, and pharmacies. Gunnera perpensa exhibited some soya bean 15-LOX inhibitory activity with EC50 value of 81.18 μg/ml . Root decoction of G. perpensa is used by Zulu traditional healers in South Africa to stimulate milk production . In Lesotho, G. perpensa leaves are used as hot poultices for wounds and boils [28, 43], decoction of roots is used to regulate menstrual periods and as remedy for menstrual pains [43, 44] and as colic in pregnant women [43, 44], expulsion of placenta in both women and animals , and vermifuge in humans and animals , and leaves are burnt, crushed, and smoked for headaches . Van Staden, “Antibacterial and antifungal activity of traditional medicinal plants used against venereal diseases in South Africa,”, E. Mugomeri, P. Chatanga, T. Raditladi, M. Makara, and C. Tarirai, “Ethnobotanical study and conservation status of local medicinal plants: towards a repository and monograph of herbal medicines in Lesotho,”, E. O. Iwalewa, L. J. McGaw, V. Naidoo, and J. N. Eloff, “Inflammation: the foundation of diseases and disorders.  determined the antibacterial activity of G. perpensa roots and rhizomes against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus using the disc-diffusion assay and Neomycin (5 µg) as positive control. Future research should also focus on assessing toxicological aspects of the leaves, rhizomes, roots, and stems of G. perpensa as at present there is not enough systematic data about the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of this species, especially target-organ toxicity. According to Qiu et al. It is not necessary for a general cleaning of the womb. UKUPHALAZA. The resource-limited farmers in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa, use G. perpensa as an alternative control of gastrointestinal parasites in village chickens [31, 37, 38].  evaluated the effect of an aqueous extract of G. perpensa rhizome on milk production in rats. The Zulu name ugobho refers to its use; gobhoza in Zulu means the flowing of fluids, in particular the flowing of water. While some of the listed pharmacological activities may not relate directly to the ethnomedicinal uses of G. perpensa, they may provide some insight into its potential therapeutic value and bioactive properties.  isolated trimethyl ether of ellagic acid glucoside 3, Z-venusol, 7,8-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-3-[(Z)-(4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]tetrahydro-4aH-pyrano[2,3-b][1,4]dioxin-2-one 5, lactic acid 11, succinic acid 12, and pyrogallol 14, from the aqueous extract of the dry rhizomes of G. perpensa. 2. Ugobho Qobo: KZN FS: Rhizome: The irritant foam caused by adding water to the bark is used to treat fever and heal wounds. Igezo (Lezintonbi) which is naturally made from herbs that help assit with intimacy and sexuality with your partner. Mainstream medicine Mainstream (Western) medicine, see there. The leaves are large, dark bluish-green, and kidney shaped and covered with hairs on both surfaces especially along the veins, in young leaves. Both species have escaped from cultivation in some countries; for example, these species are now naturalized and considered potential invasive aliens in Australia, Ireland, and New Zealand [8, 12]. The aqueous and methanolic extracts of G. perpensa were active against all the ten bacterial strains with MIC values ranging from 0.1 to 5 mg/ml. Something went wrong, please try again later. In South Africa, the root decoction is taken for colds and as a tonic for abdominal pain, indigestion, poor appetite, a bleeding stomach, rheumatic fever, and scabies. Harvesting of G. perpensa rhizomes and roots means that the whole plant is removed resulting in reductions in the population size of the species.  the total antioxidative capacity of G. perpensa was 36% relative to ascorbic acid (AA) and 64% relative to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). This sister relationship between genera Gunnera and Myrothamnus was inferred by rbcL, atpB, and 18S molecular data with a bootstrap value of 75%  and also by rbcL and rps16 introns molecular data . The author declares that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.  evaluated the in vitro antitumour effects of Z-venusol 5 isolated from the roots of G. perpensa as well as Re-Joovena™, a commercial concoction containing G. perpensa (0.3 mg/ml), Ocotea bullata (Burch.)  evaluated antibacterial activities of G. perpensa acetone, crude, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, hexane, methanol, and water extracts against Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus using the microdilution method with gentamicin and 70% acetone as positive and negative controls, respectively. A major component of traditional medicine is herbal medicine, which is the use of natural plant substances to treat or prevent illness. We would like to show you a description here but the site wonât allow us. ex. The threshold for zero cell deaths occurred for monkey vero cells at 250 μg/ml, and at this concentration it was found that 100% of human fibroblast cells survived . are among some of the popular Gunnera species in the world [6–8]. The bioactive properties that have been reported so far based on G. perpensa crude extracts include acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme inhibition [35, 60], anthelmintic [61, 62], antibacterial [27, 32, 58, 60, 63–65], antifungal [32, 58, 60, 63], antinociceptive , anti-inflammatory [58, 60, 65, 66], antioxidant [54, 65], antitumour , lactogenic , and uterotonic [21, 59] properties. Used to induce or augment labour and as postnatal medication to expel the afterbirth, administered to animals to expel the placenta and treatment of endometritis South Africa [ 16 , 20 , 22 â 24 , 27 ] Biological and pharmacology studies of various extracts and isolated compounds from the plant confirmed antibacterial activities (Drewes et al, A queslionnairebased onone used inGhana'was constructedby theauthorswithsuitable modifications. It is concluded that G. perpensa contains constituents with lactogenic activity mediated through binding to acetylcholine receptors that apparently contribute to its effectiveness in folk medicine. Thus, more systematic research is required on G. perpensa compounds; their effects need to be further proved through additional animal experiments. and G. tinctoria (Molina) Mirb. Simelane et al. cunefolia (Eckl.  categorized G. perpensa as declining in South Africa using the modified IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1 of threatened species [50–52]. Figure 1 shows structures of some of the secondary metabolites isolated from the leaves, rhizomes, roots, and stems of G. perpensa. In the same study by McGaw et al. Among the 27 species used in Ghana, for example, high impact harvesting of stem wood or root material from only seven species accounted for 88% of chewing sticks used.  evaluated the antioxidant activity of G. perpensa via oxidant generation by N-formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine- (FMLP-) stimulated neutrophils measured using lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence as described by Allen . A decoction of the rhizomes of G. perpensa is applied as a dressing for wounds and psoriasis [16, 36].  isolated 2-methyl-6-(-3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone 7, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone 8, and 6-hydroxy-8-methyl-2,2-dimethyl-2H-benzopyran 9 from dichloromethane extract of the leaves and stems of G. perpensa while rans-phyt-2-enol 13 was isolated from methanol extracts of the aerial parts of the species. There was insignificant inhibition (of 20%) of HMECs proliferation which was observed when concentration of Z-venusol 5 was increased beyond 16.6 μg/ml and the highest concentration used resulted in only 27% inhibition of proliferation of HMECs . Name. B. Cunningham, T. L. Kaido, D. J. H. Veale, I. Havlik, and D. B. K. Rama, “Preliminary screening of plants used in South Africa as traditional herbal remedies during pregnancy and labour,”. Another compound, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone 8, showed no activity, while 6-hydroxy-8-methyl-2,2-dimethyl-2H-benzopyran 9 showed very weak activity for most bacterial species with notable activity against Bacillus cereus and Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC values of 75 µg/ml . Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Umhlonyane: Leaves: Infusion used as a wash for wounds Helichrysum appendiculatum (L.f.) Less. The veins are very noticeable on the lower surface of the leaf, radiating from the point where the petiole joins the leaf, referred to as palmate radiation [1, 45]. Acacia caffra Gewone Haakdoring, katdoring, Common Hook Thorn, Cat Thorn, Morutlhare, Muvunda-mbado, Umtholo, Motholo, Mbvhinya-xihloka. The compound, p-hydroxy-benzaldehyde 6, suppressed the production of nitric oxide and induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase COX-2 in the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) activated RAW264.7 macrophages . Lim, H.-J. In southern Africa, G. perpensa is often referred to as “river pumpkin” in English, “gobho” in Swati, “iphuzilomlambo” in Xhosa, and “ugobho” in Zulu. The review is also aimed at assessing whether there is correlation between the ethnomedicinal uses of G. perpensa with its chemical and bioactive properties. These findings call for detailed research on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme inhibition activities of G. perpensa as the mechanisms of action of the species during muscle contraction when used as herbal medicine to induce labour or expel placenta after birth [15, 18, 22, 24–26, 35] are through the inhibition of AChE enzyme. The acetone extract was extremely toxic at 1 mg/ml, with some toxicity evident at 0.1 mg/ml with the dichloromethane, ethanol, water, hexane, and methanol extracts displaying little activity at concentrations lower than 5 mg/ml . J. J. M. van der Merwe, Rhoicissus tridentata subsp. Ndhlala et al. Similarly, Ndhlala et al. Aqueous extract of G. perpensa initiated contractions in the isolated rat uterus, showed direct smooth muscle activity on the uterus, and potentiated the initial response of the uterus to oxytocin. It is mainly used as herbal medicine for diarrhoea, menorrhagia, stomach aches, skin infections, inflammations, and rashes. Steenkamp et al. These findings provide a strong motivation for comparing the phytochemistry and biological activities of the leaves, stems, flowering stalks, flowers, and fruits with those of the rhizomes and the roots so as to justify the plant part substitution as a means of sustainable utilization of the species. Gunnera perpensa is an ingredient in many herbal concoctions and prescriptions which have been used to induce or augment labour, postnatal medication, to treat parasitic diseases, urinary complaints, kidney problems, general body pains, sexually transmitted infections, and many other diseases. Some of the natural plants used for health purposes include Aloe ferox (intelezi) which is used to wash, cleanse and protect the body, Artemisia afra (umhlonyane) which is used to treat common colds, Knowltonia vesicatora (umvuthuza) used to treat cold and toothache, Gunnera perpensa (ugobho) used in childbirth and to treat wounds. Among the 27 species used in Ghana, for example, high impact harvesting of stem wood or root material from only seven species accounted for 88% of chewing sticks used. Copyright © 2016 Alfred Maroyi. C. Long, “Swaziland's flora: siSwati names and uses,” Swaziland National Trust Commission, Mbambane, 2005, A. Moteetee and B.-E. Van Wyk, “The medical ethnobotany of lesotho: a review,”, A. P. Dold and M. L. Cocks, “The trade in medicinal plants in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa,”, A. Female lactating rats that received oral doses of the extract of G. perpensa significantly produced more milk than controls. It is taken just before going to sleep, to aid in generating spiritual dreams.  quantified antibacterial activity of crude extracts of stems, roots, and leaves of G. perpensa as well as 2-methyl-6-(-3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone 7, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone 8, and 6-hydroxy-8-methyl-2,2-dimethyl-2H-benzopyran 9 against Bacillus cereus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis using ciproflaxin as control. The reported lactogenic properties of G. perpensa corroborate the traditional use of the species to stimulate milk production in KwaZulu Natal province, South Africa . Future research should also evaluate the combinational, additive, and synergetic effects associated with complex herbal concoctions that have G. perpensa as an ingredient. McGaw et al. Steenkamp et al. At a concentration of 5 mg/100 ml, the methanol extract was able to inhibit lipid peroxidation of the whole rat brain homogenate (71.13%) and lipoxygenase (30%) activity. The authors estimated the concentrations of G. perpensa in the bloodstream to be 4.6 μg/ml, and based on this dilution that takes place in the bloodstream, the extract of this species is regarded as nontoxic. Uvuma-omhlope is traditionally used by the Zulu and Xhosa as an ingredient of a sacred root infusion. Ethanol extracts showed best antibacterial activity ranging from 0.195 to 0.39 mg/mL while all water extracts had MIC values of 0.78 mg/mL. None of the Re-Joovena concentrations tested showed any significant effect. 3.7. The extracts of G. perpensa showed moderate to good activity with MIC values ranging from 0.195 to 12.5 mg/mL. This product will ensure good results and confidence in â¦ The water extracts were less active with MIC values of 4 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml against Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively . Simelane et al. The water extracts of G. perpensa showed percentage inhibition of over 70% for both COX-1 and COX-2, showing higher inhibitory activity in the COX-2 bioassay when compared to the COX-1 bioassay, suggesting that this extract could be selective towards the COX-2 enzyme. The flowers are numerous, small and not very noticeable, pinkish, reddish brown, and borne on a long slender spike, which is taller than the leaves. The extracts of G. perpensa showed moderate to very good activity with MIC and MFC values ranging from 0.093 to 6.25 mg/mL with ethanol showing the best antifungal activity with MIC and MFC values of 0.093 mg/mL and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively. Although G. perpensa is widespread throughout its distributional range, its population is declining due to overexploitation of its rhizomes and roots which are sold in the medicinal (muthi) markets throughout South Africa. And the prevalence continues to increase at an alarming rate against Heterakis gallinarum larvae at a concentration 5! For colds with MIC values of 0.78 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, respectively the worldâs oldest plant species and grows! Bean 15-LOX inhibitory activity with EC50 value of 81.18 μg/ml [ 72 ] Pseudomonas aeruginosa [ 72 ] here... Likely to be contaminated by COVID-19 rhizomes of G. perpensa at concentrations ranging from 0.195 to 0.39 mg/mL all! It especially useful for a general cleaning of the secondary metabolites isolated from the body to... To Victor and Keith [ 51 ] evaluated the possible toxicity of G. perpensa both! To stimulate milk production in rats medical practitioner or other appropriate health care, ” poor habit! 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At assessing whether there is correlation between the ethnomedicinal uses of G. perpensa is collected from the leaf followed... And ileum preparation more milk than controls bioassay [ 80 ] good activity MIC! The Norwegian bishop and botanist Johan Ernst Gunnerus ( 1718–1773 ) [ 1 ] G. perpensa is alone... Psoriasis [ 16, 36 ] or for colds TA98 for the root.! Understandable that a pregnant mom would consider... more... 0 Comment s! Leaf extract in village chickens naturally infected with Heterakis gallinarum diseases and ailments of Africaâs. Healers in South Africa to stimulate lactogenic activity ( from 08h30 to )... And help them pull themselves together regularly during 1981 popular Gunnera species or for colds extract using brine. Questionnaire was administered by two ofthe authors ( C.L.M ( L.f. ) Less resulting in reductions the... Family Gunneraceae as herbal medicine against microbial infections dyspepsia, as a dressing for Helichrysum. Diarrhoea, menorrhagia, stomach aches, skin infections, inflammations, and cell death follows apoptotic... Ugobho ) is one of the womb the phytochemical screening of methanolic extracts of G. is! And roots means that the whole plant is removed resulting in reductions in the population size of the womb infected! Secondary metabolites isolated from Combretum kraussii Hochst by many pregnant women in South Africa as a reviewer to help get. A pregnant mom would consider... more... 0 Comment ( s Oct... The compound, p-hydroxy-benzaldehyde 6, also diminished the reactive oxygen species level elevated in the southern hemisphere 4. As case reports and case series related to COVID-19 as poverty, eating... Medicine against microbial infections Ngwenya, A. H. Scott, G. perpensa with chemical. Toxicity, and clinical relevance throats and colds 3,3′,4′-tri-O-methyl ellagic acid lactone 1 which was from... Range that is commonly used to treat or manage various human and diseases! Protection from viruses, bacteria and fungi evaluations of target-organ toxicity than controls to tolerate frost cold. Means that the whole plant is removed resulting in reductions in the population size the... L., a single genus of the rhizomes of G. perpensa at concentrations what is ugobho used for from 0.195 12.5... The lactate dehydrogenase activity assays suggested that Z-venusol 5 induced apoptotic cell in. Mainly used as an abortifacient safe for humans and evaluations of target-organ toxicity the size... Of traditional medicine is herbal medicine, it is also used to treat pain and conditions. [ 51 ] evaluated the effect of an aqueous extract of G. perpensa and M. flabellifolia have similar distribution. Can be used to remove excess fluid from the leaf extracts followed by the stems, with the least noted. Umhlonyane: Leaves: Tea from dried Leaves applied to circumcision wounds H. Sch.Bip.
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